The Putnam County Public Library has acquired a collection of 48 DVDs and books focused on racial equity and the Black American experience. This program has been made possible through a grant by Indiana Humanities with funds from Lilly Endowment Inc.
The mission of this collection is to help spread awareness and increase access to narratives of the Black American experience. The library’s goal is that these materials will be used as a tool to entertain, educate, and inspire the community of Putnam County.
Argues that since black children grow up in a distinct culture, they require ‘an educational system that recognizes their strengths, their abilities, and their culture, and that incorporates them into the learning process’. — Washington Post
Once again, in this expanded Second Edition, Gary Howard outlines what good teachers know, what they do, and how they embrace culturally responsive teaching. Howard brings his bestselling book completely up to date with todays school reform efforts and includes a new introduction and a new chapter that speak directly to current issues such as closing the achievement gap, and to recent legislation such as No Child Left Behind. With our nations student population becoming ever more diverse, and teachers remaining largely White, this book is now more important than ever. A must-read in universities and school systems throughout the country, We Cant Teach What We Dont Know continues to facilitate and deepen the discussion of race and social justice in education.
The self-perception that one is able to assess others in a fair and accurate way is challenged as the authors explore the hidden biases we all carry from a lifetime of exposure to cultural attitudes about age, gender, race ethnicity, religion, social class, sexuality, disability status, and nationality. This book questions the extent to which our perceptions of social groups — without our awareness or conscious control — shape our likes and dislikes and our judgments about people’s character, abilities and potential. Biases based on experience are revealed with the Implicit Association Test
Case Studies on Diversity and Social Justice Education offers pre- and in-service educators an opportunity to analyze and reflect upon a variety of realistic case studies related to educational equity and social justice. The accessibly written cases allow educators to practice the process of considering a range of contextual factors, checking their own biases, and making immediate- and longer-term decisions about how to create and sustain equitable learning environments for all students. This revised edition adds ten new cases to offer greater coverage of elementary education, as well as topics such as body-shaming, Black Lives Matter, and transgender oppression. Existing cases have been updated to reflect new societal contexts, and streamlined for ease-of-use. The book begins with a seven-point process for examining case studies. Largely lacking from existing case study collections, this framework guides readers through the process of identifying, examining, reflecting on, and taking concrete steps to resolve challenges related to diversity and equity in schools. The cases themselves present everyday examples of the ways in which racism, sexism, homophobia and heterosexism, class inequities, language bias, religious-based oppression, and other equity and diversity concerns affect students, teachers, families, and other members of our school communities. They involve classroom issues that are relevant to all grade levels and content areas, allowing significant flexibility in how and with whom they are used. Although organized topically, the intersections of these issues are stressed throughout the cases, reflecting the complexities of real-life scenarios. All cases conclude with a series of questions to guide discussion and a section of facilitator notes, called ‘Points for Consideration.’ This unique feature provides valuable insight for understanding the complexities of each case.
Cops, politicians, and ordinary people are afraid of black men. The result is the Chokehold: laws and practices that treat every African American man like a thug. In this explosive new book, an African American former federal prosecutor shows that the system is working exactly the way it’s supposed to. Black men are always under watch, and police violence is widespread–all with the support of judges and politicians. In his no-holds-barred style, Butler, whose scholarship has been featured on 60 Minutes, uses new data to demonstrate that white men commit the majority of violent crime in the United States. For example, a white woman is ten times more likely to be raped by a white male acquaintance than be the victim of a violent crime perpetrated by a black man. Butler also frankly discusses the problem of black on black violence and how to keep communities safer–without relying as much on police. Chokehold powerfully demonstrates why current efforts to reform law enforcement will not create lasting change. Butler’s controversial recommendations about how to crash the system, and when it’s better for a black man to plead guilty–even if he’s innocent–are sure to be game-changers in the national debate about policing, criminal justice, and race relations
A bold, brain-based teaching approach to culturally responsive instruction. The achievement gap remains a stubborn problem for educators of culturally and linguistically diverse students. With the introduction of the rigorous Common Core State Standards, diverse classrooms need a proven framework for optimizing student engagement and facilitating deeper learning. Culturally responsive pedagogy has shown great promise in meeting this need, but many educators still struggle with its implementation. In this book, Zaretta Hammond draws on cutting-edge neuroscience research to offer an innovative approach for designing and implementing brain-compatible culturally responsive instruction. The book includes: Information on how one’s culture programs the brain to process data and affects learning relationships; Ten “key moves” to build students’ learner operating systems and prepare them to become independent learners; Prompts for action and valuable self-reflection. With a firm understanding of these techniques and principles, teachers and instructional leaders will confidently reap the benefits of culturally responsive instruction.
In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein, a leading authority on housing policy, explodes the myth that America’s cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation—that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies. Rather, The Color of Law incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation—the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments—that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day.
Driving while Black : African American travel and the road to civil rights / Gretchen Sorin.
It’s hardly a secret that mobility has always been limited, if not impossible, for African Americans. Before the Civill War, masters confined their slaves to their property, while free black people found themselves regularly stopped, questioned, and even kidnapped. Restrictions on movement before emancipation carried over, in different forms, into Reconstruction and beyond; for most of the twentieth century, many white Americans felt blithely comfortable denying their black countrymen the right to travel freely on trains and buses. Yet it became more difficult to shackle someone who was cruising along a highway at forty-five miles per hour. In Driving While Black, acclaimed historian Gretchen Sorin reveals how the car – the ultimate symbol of independence and possibility – has always held particular importance for African Americans, allowing black families to evade the many dangers presented by an entrenched racist society and to enjoy, in some measure, the freedom of the open road. She recounts the creation of a parallel, unseen world of black motorists, who relied on travel guides, black-only businesses, and informal communication networks to keep them safe. From coast to coast, mom-and-pop guesthouses, beauty parlors, large hotels – including New York’s Hotel Theresa, the Hampton House in Miami, and the Dunbar Hotel in Los Angeles – and nightclubs and restaurants like New Orleans’ Dooky Chase and Atlanta’s Paschal’s fed travelers and provided places to stay the night. At the heart of Sorin’s story is Victor and Alma Green’s famous Green Book, a travel guide begun in 1936 that allowed black Americans to join in that most basic American rite, the family vacation. As Sorin demonstrates, black travel guides and black-only businesses encouraged a new way of resisting oppression. Black Americans could be confident of finding welcoming establishments as they traveled for vacation or for work. Civil rights activists learned where to stay and where to eat in the South between marches and protests. As Driving While Black reminds us, the civil rights movement was just that – a movement of black people and their allies in defiance of local law and custom. At the same time, Sorin shows that the car, despite the freedoms it offered, brought black people up against new challenges, from segregated ambulance services to unwarranted traffic stops and the racist violence that too often followed. Interwoven with Sorin’s own family history and enhanced by dozens of little-known images, Driving While Black charts how the automobile fundamentally reshaped African American life, and opens up an entirely new view onto one of the most important issues of our time.
The Alternative, is not only important reading, it’s imperative. Miller, a trained engineer, the one-time manager of a top social service organization and most importantly, the son of a remarkable single mother, has both lived and observed the failings embodied in our attitudes toward the poor and, as a result, the flaws in our systems meant to help people in poverty. He merges heart and soul with system thinking to yield a prescription featuring the real math, trust relationships and courage that can change the “us and them,” to “upward together” and put American families in the driver’s seat to build their futures.
How the police endanger us and why we need to find an alternative Recent years have seen an explosion of protest and concern about police brutality and repression–especially after long-held grievances in Ferguson, Missouri, erupted in months of violent protest following the police killing of Brown. Much of the conversation has focused on calls for enhancing police accountability, increasing police diversity, improving police training, and emphasizing community policing. Unfortunately, none of these is likely to produce results, because they fail to get at the core of the problem. The problem is policing itself–the dramatic expansion of the police role over the last forty years. This book attempts to jog public discussion of policing by revealing the tainted origins of modern policing as a tool of social control and demonstrating how the expanded role of the police is inconsistent with community empowerment, social justice–even public safety. Drawing on first-hand research from across the globe, Alex Vitale shows how the implementation of alternatives to policing, like drug legalization, regulation, and harm reduction instead of the policing of drugs, has led to reductions in crime, spending, and injustice”– Provided by publisher.
“Recent years have seen an explosion of protest and concern about police brutality and repression–especially after long-held grievances in Ferguson, Missouri, erupted in months of violent protest following the police killing of Brown. Much of the conversation has focused on calls for enhancing police accountability, increasing police diversity, improving police training, and emphasizing community policing. Unfortunately, none of these is likely to produce results, because they fail to get at the core of the problem. The problem is policing itself–the dramatic expansion of the police role over the last forty years. This book attempts to jog public discussion of policing by revealing the tainted origins of modern policing as a tool of social control and demonstrating how the expanded role of the police is inconsistent with community empowerment, social justice–even public safety. Drawing on first-hand research from across the globe, Alex Vitale shows how the implementation of alternatives to policing, like drug legalization, regulation, and harm reduction instead of the policing of drugs, has led to reductions in crime, spending, and injustice
Hidden colors [videorecording (DVD)] : the untold history of people of aboriginal, Moor & African descent / Tariq Elite ; King Flex Entertainment presents in association with Labnoise Films ; co-producer, Ola Akinroluyo ; directed by Tariq Nasheed ; a Tariq Nasheed production.
Traces the history of black America back to ancient African civilization, examining attempts by the white establishment in the U.S. to conceal this knowledge as a means of undermining African American identity. Presents theories of scholars and social commentators which comprise a history in which African Americans have been systematically oppressed as a people.
Hidden colors 2 : the triumph of melanin / King Flex Films ; directed by Tariq Nasheed ; assistant producer, Ola Akinroluyo ; executive producers, Robert Barnes, Thaddeus A. Blue, Tariq Nasheed, Emeri Shelton.
Continues the history of people of African descent, including topics such as the global African presence, the science of melanin, the truth about the prison industrial complex, how thriving black economic communities were undermined in America, hidden truths about Native Americans, and more.
Continues the history of people of African descent, including topics such as the global African presence, the science of melanin, the truth about the prison industrial complex, how thriving black economic communities were undermined in America, hidden truths about Native Americans, and more.
This film explores such topics as the motivation behind European global subjugation, the history of rarely discussed vast West African empires, how germ warfare is used on melanated people, the history of slave breeding farms in America and much more.
The final installment of the critically acclaimed Hidden Colors documentary series. In this installment, the film explores the history of warfare as it relates to global Black society. The film is broken down into seven chapters that examine the ways the system of racism wages warfare from a historical, psychological, sexual, biological, health, educational, and military perspective.
When #BlackLivesMatter went viral in 2013, it shed a light on the urgent, daily struggles of black Americans to combat racial injustice. The message resonated with millions across the country. Yet many of our political, social, and economic institutions are still embedded with racist policies and practices that devalue black lives. Stay Woke directly addresses these stark injustices and builds on the lessons of racial inequality and intersectionality the Black Lives Matter movement has challenged its fellow citizens to learn. In this essential primer, Tehama Lopez Bunyasi and Candis Watts Smith inspire readers to address the pressing issues of racial inequality, and provide a basic toolkit that will equip readers to become knowledgeable participants in public debate, activism, and politics. This book offers a clear vision of a racially just society, and shows just how far we still need to go to achieve this reality. From activists to students to the average citizen, Stay Woke empowers all readers to work toward a better future for black Americans.
Tisby roots the ultimate solution to racism in the Christian faith as we embrace the implications of what Jesus taught his followers. Beginning in the church, he provides an opportunity to be part of the solution and suggests that the application of these principles can offer us hope that will transform our nation and the world. Tisby encourages us to reject passivity and become active participants in the struggle for human dignity across racial and ethnic lines. Readers of the book will come away with a clear model for how to think about race in productive ways and a compelling call to dismantle a social hierarchy long stratified by skin color.
On July 17, 2014, a forty-three-year-old black man named Eric Garner died on a Staten Island sidewalk after a police officer put him in what has been described as an illegal chokehold during an arrest for selling bootleg cigarettes. The final moments of Garner’s life were captured on video and seen by millions. His agonized last words, ‘I can’t breathe,’ became a rallying cry for the nascent Black Lives Matter protest movement. A grand jury ultimately declined to indict the officer who wrestled Garner to the pavement. Matt Taibbi’s deeply reported retelling of these events liberates Eric Garner from the abstractions of newspaper accounts and lets us see the man in full–with all his flaws and contradictions intact. A husband and father with a complicated personal history, Garner was neither villain nor victim, but a fiercely proud individual determined to do the best he could for his family, bedeviled by bad luck, and ultimately subdued by forces beyond his control. In America, no miscarriage of justice exists in isolation, of course, and in I Can’t Breathe Taibbi also examines the conditions that made this tragedy possible. Featuring vivid vignettes of life on the street and inside our Kafkaesque court system, Taibbi’s kaleidoscopic account illuminates issues around policing, mass incarceration, the underground economy, and racial disparity in law enforcement. No one emerges unsullied, from the conservative district attorney who half-heartedly prosecutes the case to the progressive mayor caught between the demands of outraged activists and the foot-dragging of recalcitrant police officials. A masterly narrative of urban America and a scathing indictment of the perverse incentives built into our penal system, I Can’t Breathe drills down into the particulars of one case to confront us with the human cost of our broken approach to dispensing criminal justice
The author’s first encounter with a racialized America came at age seven, when her parents told her they named her Austin to deceive future employers into thinking she was a white man. She grew up in majority-white schools, organizations, and churches, and has spent her life navigating America’s racial divide as a writer, a speaker, and an expert helping organizations practice genuine inclusion. While so many institutions claim to value diversity in their mission statements, many fall short of matching actions to words. Brown highlights how white middle-class evangelicalism has participated in the rise of racial hostility, and encourages the reader to confront apathy and recognize God’s ongoing work in the world.
When Layla Saad began an Instagram challenge called #meandwhitesupremacy, she never predicted it would become a cultural movement. She encouraged people to own up and share their racist behaviors, big and small. She was looking for truth, and she got it… Thousands of people participated in the challenge, and over 80,000 people downloaded the supporting work Me and White Supremacy. Updated and expanded from the original edition, Me and White Supremacy teaches readers how to dismantle the privilege within themselves so that they can stop (often unconsciously) inflicting damage on people of color, and in turn, help other white people do better, too
[Ben Crump] shows that there is a persistent, prevailing, and destructive mindset regarding colored people that is rooted in our history as a slave-owning nation. This biased attitude has given rise to mass incarceration, voter disenfranchisement, unequal educational opportunities, disparate health care practices, job and housing discrimination, police brutality, and an unequal justice system… Open Season is more than Crump’s incredible mission to preserve justice, it is a call to action for Americans to begin living up to the promise to protect the rights of its citizens equally and without question.
After fifteen-year-old Jeremiah is mistakenly shot by police, the people who love him struggle to cope with their loss as they recall his life and death, unaware that Miah is watching over them.
While writing letters to Innocence X, a justice-seeking project, asking them to help her father, an innocent black man on death row, teenaged Tracy takes on another case when her brother is accused of killing his white girlfriend.
What do we tell our children when the world seems bleak, and prejudice and racism run rampant? With 96 lavishly designed pages of original art, poetry, and prose, fifty diverse creators lend voice and comfort to young activists.
Racism is a difficult issue to face, but people must confront it if they hope to move beyond it. Confronting challenging social issues such as racism often begins with education. As readers discover the roots of racism in America and how it still isolates people from one another, they learn what their generation can do to combat racism create a more inclusive society. This sensitive topic is presented in an age-appropriate an informative way, using fact boxes, graphic organizers, and full-color photographs enhance the reading experience.
All the colors we are : the story of how we get our skin color = Todos los colores de nuestra piel : la historia de por qué tenemos diferentes colores de piel / Katie Kissinger ; photographs by/Fotografías de Chris Bohnhoff.
Explains, in simple terms, the reasons for skin color, how it is determined by heredity, and how various environmental factors affect it
When Lisa Delpit’s Other People’s Children was first published, it was heralded nationwide as a seminal new analysis of race in the classroom. It has gone on to become required reading for teachers, parents, and administrators alike. Featuring a new introduction by Delpit as well as framing essays by Herbert Kohl, Charles M. Payne, and Patricia Lesesne, this revolutionary work develops ideas about ways teachers can be better ‘cultural transmitters.’ Delpit suggests that many academic problems attributed to children of color are actually the result of miscommunication, as teachers and ‘other people’s children’ struggle with the imbalance of power and the dynamics of inequality plaguing our society. A new classic among educators, Other People’s Children is a must-read for teachers, parents, and administrators striving to eradicate the prejudice and stereotypes that breed ineffective education.
First published in Portuguese in 1968, [this book] was translated and published in English in 1970. Paulo Freire’s work has helped to empower countless people throughout the world and continues to possess a special urgency as the creation of a permanent underclass among the underprivileged and minorities in urban centers around the world continues. The 50th anniversary edition includes a new introduction by Donaldo Macedo, an afterword by Ira Shor, and interviews with Marina Aparicio Barberán, Noam Chomsky, Gustavo E. Fischman, Ramón Flecha, Ronald David Glass, Valerie Kinloch, peter Mayo, Peter McLaren, and Margo Okazawa-Rey to inspire a new generation of educators, students, and general readers for years to come.
Fifteen-year-old Diamond stopped going to school the day she was expelled for lashing out at peers who constantly harassed and teased her for something everyone on the staff had missed: she was being trafficked for sex. After months on the run, she was arrested and sent to a detention center for violating a court order to attend school. Black girls represent 16 percent of female students but almost half of all girls with a school-related arrest. The first trade book to tell these untold stories, Pushout exposes a world of confined potential and supports the growing movement to address the policies, practices, and cultural illiteracy that push countless students out of school and into unhealthy, unstable, and often unsafe futures. For four years Monique W. Morris, author of Black Stats, chronicled the experiences of black girls across the country whose intricate lives are misunderstood, highly judged-by teachers, administrators, and the justice system-and degraded by the very institutions charged with helping them flourish. Morris shows how, despite obstacles, stigmas, stereotypes, and despair, black girls still find ways to breathe remarkable dignity into their lives in classrooms, juvenile facilities, and beyond.
Reproductive Injustice: Racism, Pregnancy, and Premature Birth’ explores the issues of racism, medicine, and motherhood
Challenges one of America’s most cherished assumptions, the belief that slavery in the United States ended with Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, by telling the harrowing story of how, in the South, a new system of involuntary servitude took its place with shocking force.
In the thoroughly revised second edition of Start Where You Are, But Don’t Stay There, H. Richard Milner IV addresses the knowledge and insights required on the part of teachers and school leaders to serve students of color
An essential tour through one of America’s fundamental historical tragedies, Stony the Road is also a story of heroic resistance, as figures such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Ida B. Wells fought to create a counter-narrative, and culture, inside the lion’s mouth. As sobering as this tale is, it also has within it the inspiration that comes with encountering the hopes our ancestors advanced against the longest odds.
Draws on the author’s experiences living undercover within the ranks of “the Family” theocratic group in Arlington, Virginia, to explore fundamentalism in America and its role in influencing democracy.
At once a powerful evocation of James Baldwin’s early life in Harlem and a disturbing examination of the consequences of racial injustice, the book is an intensely personal and provocative document from the iconic author of If Beale Street Could Talk and Go Tell It on the Mountain. It consists of two “letters,” written on the occasion of the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, that exhort Americans, both black and white, to attack the terrible legacy of racism. Described by The New York Times Book Review as “sermon, ultimatum, confession, deposition, testament, and chronicle…all presented in searing, brilliant prose,” The Fire Next Time stands as a classic of literature.
The guide for white women who teach black boys : understanding, connecting, respecting / [edited by] Eddie Moore, Jr., Ali Michael, Marguerite W. Penick-Parks ; forewords by Glenn E. Singleton and Heather Hackman.
Schools that routinely fail Black boys are not extraordinary. In fact, they are all-too ordinary. If we are to succeed in positively shifting outcomes for Black boys and young men, we must first change the way school is “done.” That’s where the eight in ten teachers who are White women fit in… and this urgently needed resource is written specifically for them as a way to help them understand, respect and connect with all of their students. So much more than a call to call to action–but that, too!–The Guide for White Women Who Teach Black Boys brings together research, activities, personal stories, and video interviews to help us all embrace the deep realities and thrilling potential of this crucial American task. With Eddie, Ali, and Marguerite as your mentors, you will learn how to: Develop learning environments that help Black boys feel a sense of belonging, nurturance, challenge, and love at school ; Change school culture so that Black boys can show up in the wholeness of their selves ; Overcome your unconscious bias and forge authentic connections with your Black male students. If you are a teacher who is afraid to talk about race, that’s okay. Fear is a normal human emotion and racial competence is a skill that can be learned. We promise that reading this extraordinary guide will be a life-changing first step forward… for both you and the students you serve
Featuring 12 explosive new chapters, this new edition of the New York Times bestseller brings the story of Economic Hit Men up-to-date and, chillingly, home to the U. S.–but it also gives us hope and the tools to fight back
One of the most celebrated and revered writers in the history of American literature gives us a new nonfiction collection–a rich gathering of her essays, speeches, and meditations on society, culture, and art, spanning four decades. The Source of Self-Regard is brimming with all the elegance of mind and style, the literary prowess and moral compass, that are Toni Morrison’s hallmarks. It is divided into three parts: the first is introduced by a powerful prayer for the dead of 9/11, the second by a searching meditation on Martin Luther King Ir., and the last by a heart-wrenching eulogy for James Baldwin. In the writings and speeches included here, Morrison takes on contested social issues: the foreigner, female empowerment, the press, money, “black matter(s) and human rights. She looks at enduring aspects of culture: the role of the artist in society, the literary imagination, the Afro-American presence in American literature, and, in her Nobel lecture, the power of language itself. And here too is piercing commentary on her own work (including The Bluest Eye, Sala, Tar Baby, Jazz, Beloved, and Paradise) and that of others, among them painter and collagist Romare Bearden, author Toni Cade Bambara, and theater director Peter Sellars. In all, The Source of Self-Regard is a luminous and essential addition to Toni Morrison’s oeuvre.
The Spook Who Sat by the Door (1969), by Sam Greenlee, is the fictional story of Dan Freeman, the first black CIA officer, and of the CIA’s history of training persons and political groups who later used their specialised training in gathering intelligence, political subversion, and guerrilla warfare against the CIA.
A two-hour film about “the talk’ that parents have with their children of color (primarily boys) to teach them how to act around the police in order to remain safe.
For many years to come, race will continue to be a source of controversy and conflict in American society. For many of us it will continue to shape where we live, pray, go to school, and socialize. We cannot simply wish away the existence of race or racism, but we can take steps to lessen the ways in which the categories trap and confine us. Educators, who should be committed to helping young people realize their intellectual potential as they make their way toward adulthood, have a responsibility to help them find ways to expand identities related to race so that they can experience the fullest possibility of all that they may become. In this brutally honest―yet ultimately hopeful― book Pedro Noguera examines the many facets of race in schools and society and reveals what it will take to improve outcomes for all students. From achievement gaps to immigration, Noguera offers a rich and compelling picture of a complex issue that affects all of us.
Paralegal Janet Gregory takes on a pro bono case to help an African-American husband and father who she believes has been wrongly accused of raping a girl in his neighborhood. Her 22-year battle with the justice system will eventually bring him the freedom he deserves and bond the two of them in a life-long friendship.
Nearly five years ago, the Department of Justice issued a Dear Colleague letter to school leaders across the nation that underscored the need to reform exclusionary school disciplinary programs and practices that discriminate on the basis of race. While carrot and stick reforms may help drive systemic change, zero tolerance policies continue to lead to disproportional disciplinary referrals, loss of instructional time, and increased dropout rates among students of color. In this groundbreaking book, acclaimed author Rich Milner proposes a solution that begins at the classroom level. In particular, he argues that that teachers need to develop the knowledge, dispositions, and mindsets to learn and adjust their practices based on the particular needs of their students, especially those who are on the margins of teaching and learning. Classroom management is typically one of the major sources of anxiety for inexperienced teachers. Although most teacher candidates study classroom management in their pre-service coursework, few of these courses focus on underserved student populations such as students of color and English Learners. And, in reality, even many experienced teachers rely on approaches to classroom management that are mismatched with the population of students they teach. This book is a practical approach to reimagining classroom management that effectively serves the needs of diverse learners including children of color, English Learners, and children from low-income households
A behind-the-scenes account of the story of the #blacklivesmatter movement shares insights into the young men and women behind it, citing the racially charged controversies that have motivated members and the economic, political and personal histories that inform its purpose.